DefinitionAarskog syndrome is an inherited disease that affects a person's height, muscles, skeleton, genitals, and appearance of the face. Inherited means that it is passed down through families.
Alternative NamesFacial-digital-genital syndrome
Causes, incidence, and risk factorsAarskog syndrome is a genetic disorder that is linked to the X chromosome. It affects mainly males, but females may have a milder form. The condition is caused by changes (mutations) in a gene called "faciogenital dysplasia" (FGD1).
SymptomsBelly button that sticks outBulge in the groin or scrotum (inguinal hernia)Delayed sexual maturity
Delayed teethDownward palpebral slant to eyesHairline with a "widow's peak"Mildly sunken chest (pectus excavatum)Mild to moderate mental problemsMild to moderate short height (stature), which may not be obvious until the child is 1 - 3 years oldPoorly developed middle section of the faceRounded face"Shawl" scotum, testicles that have not come down (undescended)Short fingers and toes with mild webbingSingle crease in the palm of the handSmall, broad hands and feet with short fingers and curved-in fifth fingerSmall nose with nostrils tipped forwardTop portion of the ear folded over slightlyWide groove above the upper lip, crease below the lower lipWide-set eyes with droopy eyelids
Signs and testsGenetic testing for changes (mutations) in the FGD1 geneX-rays
TreatmentMoving the teeth (orthodontic treatment) may be done for some of the abnormal facial features.
Support GroupsThe MAGIC Foundation for Children's Growth is a support group for Aarskog syndrome and can be found at www.magicfoundation.org.
Expectations (prognosis)Some people may have mild degrees of mental slowness, but affected children usually have good social skills. Some males may have problems with fertility.
ComplicationsChanges in the brainDifficulty growing in the first year of lifePoorly aligned teethSeizures
Calling your health care providerCall your health care provider if your child has delayed growth or if you notice any symptoms of Aarskog syndrome. Seek genetic counseling if you have a family history of Aarskog syndrome. Contact a genetic specialist if your doctor thinks you or your child may have Aarskog syndrome.
PreventionGenetic testing may be available for persons with a family history of the condition or a known mutation of the gene.