Cancer - vulva


Vulvar cancer is cancer that starts in the vulva. Vulvar cancer most often affects the labia, the folds of skin outside the vagina. In some cases, vulvar cancer may start on the clitoris or in glands on the sides of the vagina opening.

Alternative Names

Cancer - perineum

Causes, incidence, and risk factors

Most vulvar cancers begin in skin cells called squamous cells. Other vulvar cancers are:AdenocarcinomaBasal cell carcinomaMelanomaSarcomaVulvar cancer is relatively rare. Risk factors include:Human papilloma virus (HPV, or genital warts) infection in women under age 50Chronic skin changes such as lichen sclerosis or squamous hyperplasia in women over age 50History of cervical cancer or vaginal cancerSmokingWomen with a condition called vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) have a greater risk of developing vulvar cancer that spreads. However, most cases of VIN never lead to cancer.


Women with this condition will often have itching around the vagina for years. They may have used different skin creams. They may also have bleeding.Other skin changes that may occur around the vulva:Mole or freckle, which may be pink, red, white, or graySkin thickening or lumpSkin sore (ulcer)Other symptoms:Pain or burning with urinationPain with intercourseUnusual odorAlmost 20% of women with vulvar cancer have no symptoms.

Signs and tests

The following tests are used to diagnose vulvar cancer:BiopsyCT scan or MRI of the pelvis to look for cancer spreadPelvic examination to look for any skin changes


Imiquimod 5% cream may be used to treat vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN).Treatment involves surgery to remove the cancer cells. If the tumor is large (more than 2 cm) or has grown deeply into the skin, the lymph nodes in the groin area may also be removed.Radiation, with or without chemotherapy, may be used to treat advanced tumors or vulvar cancer that comes back.

Support Groups

You can ease the stress of illness by joining a support group whose members share common experiences and problems. See cancer - support group.

Expectations (prognosis)

Most women with vulvar cancer who are diagnosed and treated at an early stage do well. However, a woman's outcome depends on:The size of the tumorThe type of vulvar cancerWhether the cancer has spreadThe cancer commonly comes back at or near the site of the original tumor.


Complications may include:Spread of the cancer to other areas of the bodySide effects of radiation, surgery, or chemotherapy

Calling your health care provider

Call your health care provider if you have any of these symptoms for more than 2 weeks:Local irritationSkin color changeSore on the vulva


Practicing safe sex may decrease your risk of vulvar cancer. This includes using condoms to protect against sexually transmitted infections.A vaccine is available to protect against certain forms of HPV infection. The vaccine is approved to prevent cervical cancer and genital warts. It may help prevent other cancers linked to HPV, such as vulvar cancer. The vaccine is given to young girls before they become sexually active, and to adolescents and women up to age 26.Routine pelvic exams can help diagnose vulvar cancer at an earlier stage. Earlier diagnosis improves your chances that treatment will be successful. 


Kumar S, Shah JP, Bryant CS, et al. A comparison of youngervs older women with vulvar cancer in the United States. Am J Obstet Gynecol.2009;200:e52-e55.Markman M. Gynecologic cancers. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI,eds. Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 205.van Seters M, van Beurden M, ten Kate FJ, et al. Treatment of vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia withtopical imiquimod. N Engl J Med. 2008;358:1465-1473.

Review Date: 3/15/2012
Reviewed By: David C. Dugdale, III, MD, Professor of Medicine, Division of General Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine. Susan Storck, MD, FACOG, Chief, Eastside Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Group Health Cooperative of Puget Sound, Bellevue, Washington; Clinical Teaching Faculty, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington School of Medicine. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M. Health Solutions, Ebix, Inc.
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