DefinitionAlcoholic neuropathy is damage to the nerves that results from excessive drinking of alcohol.
Alternative NamesNeuropathy - alcoholic; Alcoholic polyneuropathy
Causes, incidence, and risk factorsThe cause of alcoholic neuropathy is debated. It probably includes both a direct poisoning of the nerve by the alcohol, and the effect of poor nutrition associated with alcoholism. Up to half of all long-term heavy alcohol users develop this condition.In severe cases, the nerves that regulate internal body functions (autonomic nerves) may be involved.Risks for alcoholic neuropathy include:Long-term, heavy alcohol useAlcoholism that is present for 10 years or more
SymptomsNumbness in the arms and legsAbnormal sensations; "pins and needles"Painful sensations in the arms and legsMuscle weaknessMuscle cramps or muscle achesHeat intolerance, especially after exerciseImpotence (in men)Problems urinatingIncontinence (leaking urine)Feeling of incomplete bladder emptyingDifficulty beginning to urinateConstipationDiarrheaNausea, vomitingAdditional symptoms that may occur with this disease:
Speech impairmentLoss of muscle function or feelingMuscle contractions or spasmMuscle atrophyMovement disordersNote: Changes in muscle strength or sensation usually occur on both sides of the body and are more common in the legs than in the arms. Symptoms usually develop gradually and slowly become worse over time.
Signs and testsYour health care provider will perform a physical exam and ask questions about your symptoms. An eye exam may show eye problems.Alcoholism often makes your body unable to use or store certain vitamins and minerals. Blood tests will be done to check for a deficiency (lack of):Thiamine (vitamin B1)Pyridoxine (vitamin B6)Pantothenic acid and biotinVitamin B12Folic acidNiacin (vitamin B3)Vitamin AAdditional tests may be done to rule out other possible causes of neuropathy. Tests may include:Electrolyte levelsElectromyography (EMG)Liver and kidney function testsThyroid function testsLevels of vitamins and minerals in the bodyNerve conduction testsNerve biopsyUpper GI and small bowel seriesEsophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD)Voiding cystourethrogram
TreatmentOnce the immediate alcohol problem has been addressed, treatment goals include:Controlling symptomsMaximizing ability to function independentlyPreventing injuryIt is important to supplement the diet with vitamins, including thiamine and folic acid.Physical therapy and orthopedic appliances (such as splints) may be needed to maximize muscle function and maintain limb position.Patients may take medication, if necessary, to treat pain or uncomfortable sensations. The response to medications varies. Patients are advised to take the least amount of medication needed to reduce symptoms, to help prevent drug dependence and other side effects of chronic use.Common medications may include over-the-counter analgesics such as aspirin, ibuprofen, or acetaminophen to reduce pain. Tricyclic antidepressants or anticonvulsant medications may help stabbing pains.Positioning, or the use of a bed frame that keeps the covers off the legs, may reduce pain for some people.Some people may need to treat blood pressure problems, difficulty with urination, and slow gastrointestinal movement.Light-headedness or dizziness when standing up (orthostatic hypotension) may require several different treatments before you find one that successfully reduces symptoms. Treatments that may help include:Wearing elastic stockingsEating extra saltSleeping with the head elevatedUsing medications such as fludrocortisoneBladder dysfunction may be treated with:Manual expression of urineIntermittent catheterization (male or female)Medications such as bethanecholImpotence, diarrhea, constipation, or other symptoms are treated when necessary. These symptoms often respond poorly to treatment in people with alcoholic neuropathy.It is important to protect body parts with reduced sensation from injury. This may include:Checking the temperature of bath water to prevent burnsChanging footwearFrequently inspecting the feet and shoes to reduce injury caused by pressure or objects in the shoesGuarding the extremities to prevent injury from pressureStop using alcohol to prevent the damage from getting worse. Treatment for alcoholism may include psychiatric therapy social support such as Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), medications, and behavior modification.
Expectations (prognosis)Damage to nerves from alcoholic neuropathy is usually permanent and may get worse if you continue to use alcohol or do not correct nutritional problems. Symptoms vary from mild discomfort to severe disability. The disorder is usually not life-threatening, but it may severely affect your quality of life.
ComplicationsDisabilityLong-term (chronic) discomfort or painInjury to extremities
Calling your health care providerCall for an appointment with your health care provider if you have symptoms of alcoholic neuropathy.
PreventionAvoid or minimize alcohol use.
ReferencesShy ME. Peripheral neuropathies. In: Goldman L, Ausiello D, eds. Cecil Medicine. 23rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2007:chap 446.Harati Y, Bosch EP. Disorders of peripheral nerves. In: Bradley WG, Daroff RB, Fenichel GM, Jankovic J, eds. Bradley: Neurology in Clinical Practice. 5th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Butterworth-Heinemann Elsevier; 2008:chap 80.