DefinitionAn MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scan is a imaging test that uses powerful magnets and radio waves to create pictures of the body. It does not use radiation (x-rays).Single MRI images are called slices. The images can be stored on a computer or printed on film. One exam produces dozens or sometimes hundreds of images.For more information, see the specific MRI topics:Abdominal MRIChest MRICranial MRIHeart MRI
Alternative NamesMagnetic resonance imaging; Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging
How the test is performedYou may be asked to wear a hospital gown or clothing without metal fasteners (such as sweatpants and a t-shirt). Certain types of metal can cause blurry images.You will lie on a narrow table, which slides into a large tunnel-shaped scanner.Some exams require a special dye (contrast). The dye is usually given before the test through a vein (IV) in your hand or forearm. The dye helps the radiologist see certain areas more clearly.Small devices, called coils, may be placed around the head, arm, or leg, or other areas to be studied. These devices help send and receive the radio waves, and improve the quality of the images.During the MRI, the person who operates the machine will watch you from another room. The test most often lasts 30-60 minutes, but may take longer.
How to prepare for the testYou may be asked not to eat or drink anything for 4 - 6 hours before the scan.Tell your doctor if you are afraid of close spaces (have claustrophobia). You may be given a medicine to help you feel sleepy and less anxious, or your doctor may suggest an "open" MRI, in which the machine is not as close to the body.Before the test, tell your health care provider if you have:Brain aneurysm clipsCertain types of artificial heart valvesHeart defibrillator or pacemakerInner ear (cochlear) implantsKidney disease or dialysis (you may not be able to receive contrast)Recently placed artificial jointsCertain types of vascular stentsWorked with sheet metal in the past (you may need tests to check for metal pieces in your eyes)Because the MRI contains strong magnets, metal objects are not allowed into the room with the MRI scanner:Pens, pocketknives, and eyeglasses may fly across the room.Items such as jewelry, watches, credit cards, and hearing aids can be damaged.Pins, hairpins, metal zippers, and similar metallic items can distort the images.Removable dental work should be taken out just before the scan.
How the test will feelAn MRI exam causes no pain. If you have difficulty lying still or are very nervous, you may be given a medicine to relax you. Too much movement can blur MRI images and cause errors.The table may be hard or cold, but you can request a blanket or pillow. The machine produces loud thumping and humming noises when turned on. You can wear ear plugs to help reduce the noise.An intercom in the room allows you to speak to someone at any time. Some MRIs have televisions and special headphones that you can use to help the time pass.There is no recovery time, unless you were given a medicine to relax. After an MRI scan, you can resume your normal diet, activity, and medications.
Why the test is performedCombining MRIs with other imaging methods can often help the doctor make a more definitive diagnosis.MRI images taken after a special dye (contrast) is delivered into the body may provide additional information about the blood vessels.An MRA, or magnetic resonance angiogram, is a form of magnetic resonance imaging, that creates three-dimensional pictures of blood vessels. It is often used when traditional angiography cannot be done.
Normal valuesA normal result means the body area being studied looks normal.
What abnormal results meanResults depend on the part of the body being examined and the nature of the problem. Different types of tissues send back different MRI signals. For example, healthy tissue sends back a slightly different signal than cancerous tissue. Consult your health care provider with any questions and concerns.
What the risks areMRI uses no radiation. To date, no side effects from the magnetic fields and radio waves have been reported.The most common type of contrast (dye) used is gadolinium. It is very safe. Allergic reactions to the substance rarely occur. However, gadolinium can be harmful to patients with kidney problems who require dialysis. If you have kidney problems, please tell your health care provider before the test.The strong magnetic fields created during an MRI can cause heart pacemakers and other implants to not work as well. It can also cause a piece of metal inside your body to move or shift.
ReferencesWilkinson ID, Paley MNJ. Magnetic resonance imaging: basic principles. In: Adam A, Dixon AK, eds. Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging. 5th ed. New York, NY: Churchill Livingstone; 2008:chap 5.