Anti-rust product poisoning
DefinitionAnti-rust product poisoning occurs when someone breathes in or swallows anti-rust products. These products may be accidentally breathed in (inhaled) if they are used in a small, poorly ventilated area, such as a garage.This is for information only and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an exposure, you should call your local emergency number (such as 911) or the National Poison Control Center at 1-800-222-1222.
Poisonous IngredientAnti-rust agents contain different poisonous substances, including: Chelating agentsHydrocarbonsHydrochloric acidNitritesOxalic acidPhosphoric acid
Where FoundVarious anti-rust products
SymptomsEyes, ears, nose, and throat
Loss of visionSevere pain in the throatSevere pain or burning in the nose, eyes, ears, lips, or tongueGastrointestinal
Blood in the stoolBurns of the food pipe (esophagus)Severe abdominal painVomitingVomiting bloodHeart and blood
CollapseLow blood pressureMethemoglobinemia (very dark blood from abnormal red blood cells)Too much or too little acid in the blood, which leads to damage in all of the body organsKidneys
Kidney failureLungs and airways
Breathing difficultyThroat swelling (may also cause breathing difficulty)Skin
BurnsIrritationHoles (necrosis) in the skin or tissues underneath
Home TreatmentSeek immediate medical help. Do NOT make a person throw up unless told to do so by poison control or a health care professional.If the chemical was swallowed, immediately give the person water or milk, unless instructed otherwise by a health care provider. Do NOT give water or milk if the patient is having symptoms (such as vomiting, convulsions, or a decreased level of alertness) that make it hard to swallow.If the person breathed in the poison, immediately move him or her to fresh air.
Before Calling EmergencyDetermine the following information:Patient's age, weight, and conditionName of the product (ingredients and strengths, if known)Time it was swallowedAmount swallowed
Poison Control, or a local emergency numberThe National Poison Control Center (1-800-222-1222) can be called from anywhere in the United States. This national hotline number will let you talk to experts in poisoning. They will give you further instructions.This is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United States use this national number. You should call if you have any questions about poisoning or poison prevention. It does NOT need to be an emergency. You can call for any reason, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.See: Poison control center - emergency number
What to expect at the emergency roomThe health care provider will measure and monitor your vital signs, including temperature, pulse, breathing rate, and blood pressure. Symptoms will be treated as appropriate. You may receive:Breathing tubeBronchoscopy -- camera down the throat to see burns in the airways and lungsEndoscopy -- camera down the throat to see burns in the esophagus and the stomachFluids by IVMethylene blue, a medicine (antidote) to reverse the effect of the poisonOxygenSurgical removal of burned skin (skin debridement)Tube through the mouth into the stomach to wash out the stomach (gastric lavage)Washing of the skin (irrigation) -- perhaps every few hours for several days
Expectations (prognosis)How well you do depends on the amount of poison swallowed and how quickly treatment is received. The faster you get medical help, the better the chance for recovery.Swallowing such poisons can have severe effects on many parts of the body. Damage continues to occur to the kidneys, liver, esophagus, and stomach for several weeks after the substance was swallowed. The outcome depends on this damage.
ReferencesWax PM, Yarema M. Corrosives. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose. 4th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2007:chap 98.Mirkin DB. Benzene and related aromatic hydrocarbons. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose. 4th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2007:chap 94.