Anticoagulant rodenticides poisoning
DefinitionAnticoagulant rodenticides are poisons used to kill rats. Rodenticide means rodent killer. An anticoagulant is a blood thinner.Anticoagulant rodenticide poisoning occurs when someone swallows a product containing these chemicals.This is for information only and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an exposure, you should call your local emergency number (such as 911) or the National Poison Control Center at 1-800-222-1222.
Alternative NamesRat killer poisoning; Rodenticide poisoning
Poisonous Ingredient2-isovaleryl-1,3-indandione2-pivaloyl-1,3-indandioneBrodifacoumChlorophacinoneCoumachlorDifenacoumDiphacinoneWarfarin Note: This list may not be all-inclusive.
Where FoundD-Con Mouse Prufe II, Talon (brodifacoum)Ramik, Diphacin (diphacinone) Note: This list may not be all-inclusive.
SymptomsBlood in the urineBloody stoolsBruising and bleeding under the skinConfusion, lethargy, or altered mental status from bleeding in the brainLow blood pressureNosebleedPale skinShockVomiting blood
Home TreatmentDo NOT make a person throw up unless told to do so by poison control or a health care professional.
Before Calling EmergencyDetermine the following information:Patient's age, weight, and conditionThe name of the product (ingredients and strengths if known)Time it was swallowedHow much was swallowed
Poison Control, or a local emergency numberThe National Poison Control Center (1-800-222-1222) can be called from anywhere in the United States. This national hotline number will let you talk to experts in poisoning. They will give you further instructions.This is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United States use this national number. You should call if you have any questions about poisoning or poison prevention. It does NOT need to be an emergency. You can call for any reason, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.Take the container with you to the hospital, if possible.See: Poison control center - emergency number
What to expect at the emergency roomThe health care provider will measure and monitor the patient's vital signs, including temperature, pulse, breathing rate, and blood pressure. Blood and urine tests will be done. The patient may receive:Blood transfusion containing only the parts of your blood that help your blood clotEndoscopy -- camera down the throat to see the esophagus and the stomachFluids through a vein (IV)Medicines to treat symptomsMedicine to absorb any remaining poisonMedicine (antidote) to reverse the effect of the poison
Expectations (prognosis)Death may occur as late as 2 weeks after the poisoning as a result of bleeding. However, adequate treatment usually prevents any serious complications.
ReferencesFord M, Delaney KA, Ling L, Erickson T, eds. Clinical Toxicology. 1st ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2001.Goldfrank LR, Flomenbaum NE, Lewin NA, et al, eds. Goldfrank's Toxicologic Emergencies. 8th ed. New York, NY: McGraw Hill; 2006.