DefinitionReye syndrome is sudden (acute) brain damage and liver function problems of unknown cause.The syndrome has occurred in children who have been given aspirin when they have chicken pox or the flu. Reye syndrome has become very uncommon since aspirin is no longer recommended for routine use in children.
Causes, incidence, and risk factors
Reye syndrome is most often seen in children ages 4 - 12. Most cases that occur with chickenpox are in children ages 5 - 9. Cases that occur with the flu are usually in children ages 10 - 14.
SymptomsChildren with Reye syndrome get sick very suddenly. The syndrome often begins with vomiting, which lasts for many hours. The vomiting is quickly followed by irritable and aggressive behavior. As the condition gets worse, the child may be unable to stay awake and alert.Other symptoms of Reye syndrome:ConfusionLethargyLoss of consciousness or comaMental changesNausea and vomitingSeizuresUnusual placement of arms and legs (decerebrate posture) -- the arms are extended straight and turned toward the body, the legs are held straight, and the toes are pointed downwardOther symptoms that can occur with this disorder include:Double visionHearing lossMuscle function loss or paralysis of the arms or legsSpeech difficultiesWeakness in the arms or legs
Signs and testsThe following tests may be used to diagnose Reye syndrome:Blood chemistry testsHead CT or head MRI scanLiver biopsyLiver function testsSerum ammonia testSpinal tap
TreatmentThere is no specific treatment for this condition. The health care provider will monitor the pressure in the brain, blood gases, and blood acid-base balance (pH).Treatments may include:Breathing support (a breathing machine may be needed during a deep coma)Fluids by IV to provide electrolytes and glucoseSteroids to reduce swelling in the brain
Expectations (prognosis)How well a person does depends on the severity of any coma, as well as other factors.The outcome for those who survive an acute episode may be good.
ComplicationsComaPermanent brain damageSeizuresUntreated, seizures and coma may be life-threatening.
Calling your health care providerGo to the emergency room or call the local emergency number (such as 911) immediately if your child has confusion, lethargy, or other mental changes.
PreventionNever give a child aspirin unless told to do so by your doctor.When a child must take aspirin, take care to reduce the child's risk of catching a viral illness such as the flu and chickenpox. Avoid aspirin for several weeks after the child has received a varicella (chickenpox) vaccine.Note: Other over-the-counter medications, such as Pepto-Bismol and substances with oil of wintergreen also contain aspirin compounds called salicylates. Do not give these to a child who has a cold or fever.
ReferencesCohen J, Powderly WG. Infectious Diseases. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Elsevier; 2004:310-311.Goetz CG. Textbook of Clinical Neurology. 2nd ed. St. Louis, Mo: WB Saunders; 2003:656-657.Ferri FF. Reye’s syndrome. In: Ferri FF, ed. Ferri’s Clinical Advisor 2011. 1st ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Mosby Elsevier; 2010:section 1.Noble J. Textbook of Primary Care Medicine. 3rd ed. St. Louis, Mo: Mosby; 2001:46-47.Michaels MG. Reye syndrome. In: Long SS, Pickering LK, Prober CG, eds. Principles and Practice of Pediatric Infectious Diseases. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Churchill Livingstone; 2003:chap 50.Johnston MV. Encephalopathies. In: Kliegman RM, Behrman RE,Jenson HB, Stanton BF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 19th ed. Philadelphia ,Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 591.