DefinitionAsbestosis is a lung disease that occurs from breathing in asbestos fibers.
Alternative NamesPulmonary fibrosis - from asbestos exposure; Interstitial pneumonitis - from asbestos exposure
Causes, incidence, and risk factorsBreathing in asbestos fibers can cause scar tissue (fibrosis) to form inside the lung. Scarred lung tissue does not expand and contract normally.How severe the disease is depends on how long the person was exposed to asbestos and the amount he or she breathed in. Often, people do not notice symptoms for 20 years or more after the asbestos exposure.Asbestos fibers were commonly used in construction before 1975. Asbestos exposure occurred in asbestos mining and milling, construction, fireproofing, and other industries. Families of asbestos workers can also be exposed from particles brought home on the worker's clothing.Other asbestos-related diseases include:Pleural plaques (calcification)Malignant mesothelioma -- can develop 20-40 years after exposurePleural effusion -- a collection that develops around the lung a few years after asbestos exposureWorkers today are less likely to get asbestos-related diseases because of government regulations.Cigarette smoking increases the risk of getting asbestos-related diseases.
SymptomsChest painCoughShortness of breath with exertion (slowly gets worse over time)Tightness in the chestPossible other symptoms include:Clubbing of fingersNail abnormalities
Signs and testsWhen listening to the chest with a stethoscope (auscultation), the doctor may hear a crackling sound called rales.These tests may help diagnose the disease:Chest x-rayCT scan of the lungsGallium lung scanPulmonary function tests
TreatmentThere is no cure. Stopping exposure to asbestos is essential. To ease symptoms, drainage, chest percussion, and vibration can help remove fluids from the lungs.The doctor may prescribe aerosol medications to thin lung fluids. People with this condition may need to receive oxygen by mask or by a plastic piece that fits into the nostrils. Certain patients may need a lung transplant.
Support GroupsYou can ease the stress of this illness by joining a support group whose members share common experiences and problems. See lung disease - support group.
Expectations (prognosis)The outcome depends on the amount of asbestos you were exposed to, and for how long. This condition tends to get worse more slowly than idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis if you stop being exposed to asbestos.Patients who develop malignant mesothelioma tend t ohave a poor outcome. About 75% of those who are affected die within 1 year.
ComplicationsChronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)Lung cancerMalignant mesotheliomaPleural effusionPleural plaques
Calling your health care providerCall for an appointment with your health care provider if you suspect that you've been exposed to asbestos or if you have unexplained symptoms.
PreventionIn people who have been exposed to asbestos for more than 10 years, screening with a chest x-ray every 3 to 5 years may detect asbestos-related diseases early. Stopping cigarette smoking can dramatically reduce the risk of asbestos-related lung cancer.
ReferencesCowie RL, Murray J, Becklake MR. Pneumoconioses. In: Mason RJ, Murray JF, Broaddus VC, Martin TR, et al, eds. Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine. 5th ed. Philadelphia, Pa : Saunders Elsevier; 2010: chap 65.Samet JM. Occupational pulmonary disorders. In: Goldman L, Ausiello D, eds. Cecil Medicine. 23rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2007:chap 93.